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posted Jan 4, 2012, 6:03 PM by RADIN FUAD BIN RADIN BAIDAWI   [ updated Jan 4, 2012, 6:20 PM ]


 Learning Objectives:

At the end of the lesson, student should be able to:

  1. Identify the structure of the human respiratory system.
  2. Identify the structure of the lung.
  3. Describe the process on inhalation and exhalation.

A.   Human respiratory system

1.   The human respiratory system consist of:

      (i)   diaphragm

      (ii)  ribs

      (iii) breathing organs

      (iv) intercostal muscles

2.   The breathing organs include the nasal cavity (nostril), the breathing channel
(trachea, bronchus and bronchiole)
      and the lungs.

3.   Alveolus, bronchiole and a part of the bronchus are situated in the lungs.

4.   In the lungs, the bronchus branches to form many smaller channels called bronchiole. Each bronchiole ends with

5.   The function of the nasal cavity is to warm, moisten and filter fine particles like dust from the air that pass                   through it.

6.   The trachea is a channel which branches into two.  Each branch is called bronchus which enters the lungs.

7.   Air is taken into our body through the nose or mouth and then into the trachea.

8.   Air is inhaled through the nasal cavity and taken through the trachea, bronchus, bronchiole and finally to the  

9.   The ribs protect the lungs and internal organs like the heart.

10. The diaphragm is a piece of muscle situated at the bottom of the lungs.

11.  The intercostal muscles are situated between the ribs.  There are two types of intercostals muscles, i.e. the            internal intercostal muscle and the external intercostal muscle. The intercostal muscles contract and relax to
help the breathing process.

12.  Each alveoulus has a very thin wall which is moist and contains a large networkof blood capillaries.